Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) is a procedure performed in the first trimester of pregnancy to detect to detect birth defects by taking a
sample of cells from parts of the placenta called the chorionic
villi, which have the same genes as the fetus. CVS
can detect most of the same defects as
amniocentesis, but it cannot detect open neural tube defects. If you have CVS, you will want to consider having a blood alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test later in your pregnancy to test for neural tube defects.
Here is some information about the test and the risks involved.
Your doctor will discuss the benefits and risks of the test with you based on your particular pregnancy. This test is only useful if the results will change the management of your pregnancy, or change your desire to continue the pregnancy. If you are at higher risk for having a baby with birth defects, you may wish to have this test. Examples of things that may put you at higher risk are:
- Age 35 years old or older when you give birth.
- Family history of certain birth defects.
- Previous child with a birth defect.
- Abnormal results on other genetic screening tests.
CVS is usually done about 10-12 weeks from a woman's last menstrual period and once the presence of a living pregnancy has been established. The procedure is performed in the doctor's office or hospital. Cells can be collected from the placenta in two ways—through the abdomen or through the vagina. If you have any bleeding during pregnancy, problems with your cervix, or a sexually transmitted disease, you may be offered CVS through the abdomen as the preferred route.
Your doctor will do an
to determine the baby's age and the position of the placenta. This will help determine whether cells are collected through the abdomen or through the vagina. If collecting cells through the abdomen, the clinician will carefully insert a needle through your abdomen into your uterus and into your placenta under local anesthesia. A sample of chorionic villi will be collected. If collecting cells through the vagina, the clinician will first insert a speculum. A thin tube will be inserted into your vagina and up through your cervix. An ultrasound will be used to guide the tube to your placenta and a small sample of chorionic villi will be removed and sent to a lab. Results may take up to two weeks.
There is a risk of infection with CVS. Because the procedure is done
earlier than amniocentesis, there is a slightly higher risk of
miscarriage. You may also experience cramping or bleeding. In rare cases, limb deformities have occurred in infants, especially when CVS was done before nine weeks.
Not every woman has this test with every pregnancy. If you feel you fall into one of the categories listed above, or you have other concerns about prenatal testing, talk to your doctor.
Chorionic Villus Sampling: CVS. American Pregancy Association website. Available at:
http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html. Updated April 2006. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Prenatal Care and Tests. United States Department of Health and Human Services Women's Health website. Available at:
http://womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/prenatal-care-tests.html. Updated September 27, 2010. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Prenatal Diagnosis: Amniocentesis and CVS. American Academy of Family Physician's Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/pregnancy-newborns/fetal-health/prenatal-diagnosis-amniocentesis-and-cvs.html. Updated August 2010. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Screening and Monitoring During Pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website.
Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 28, 2012. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Last reviewed December 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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