Prenatal testing is a term that describes many tests that are done during pregnancy. The tests provide information about your health and the health of your developing baby. Prenatal testing includes blood and urine tests and ultrasounds. In some cases, more invasive procedures may be recommended. Invasive tests may include sampling placental tissue, drawing fluid from the amniotic sac, or drawing fetal blood from the umbilical cord.
Prenatal tests can be used to identify many different things, including:
- Treatable health problems in the mother that can affect the health of the fetus
- Characteristics of the fetus, including size, age, placement in the uterus, and sex
- Genetic, or chromosomal problems
In the mother, prenatal tests are used to identify things that could possibly affect the developing fetus, including:
Prenatal tests can screen for many different congenital defects in the fetus, including:
About 250 different birth defects can be diagnosed through prenatal testing. Some can be treated
(before birth) or immediately after birth, but the majority cannot. Prenatal testing can be quite complicated. However, prenatal tests do not test for everything, and no prenatal test guarantees the birth of a healthy baby.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.
December 2007; No. 88.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.
January 2007; No. 77.
Bubb JA, Matthews AL. What’s new in prenatal screening and diagnosis?
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.
Overview: prenatal tests. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
http://americanpregnancy.org/?s=prenatal+testing. Updated July 2003. Accessed October 1, 2012.
Pregnancy testing. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 9, 2010. Accessed October 2, 2012.
Prenatal tests. Nemours Foundation. KidsHealth website. Available at:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/prenatal_tests.html. Updated January 2012. Accessed October 1, 2012.
Last reviewed March 2014 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
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