type 1 diabetes
are caused by the build up of glucose in the blood and the lack of glucose in body cells. Symptoms of hyperglycemia include the following:
- Unexplained weight loss
- Increased urination (polyuria)
- Extreme thirst (polydipsia)
- Fatigue, weakness
- Blurry vision
- Chest pain
In some cases, the total lack of insulin leads to a condition called
ketoacidosis. When you do not have enough insulin, blood sugar levels rise. Yet, that sugar cannot enter the body’s cells to generate energy. In response, the body starts breaking down stored fat for energy. The by-products of fat breakdown are called ketone bodies. These ketone bodies are composed of acids that build up in the blood and cause ketoacidosis.
Symptoms of ketoacidosis include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Stomach pain
following frequent urination
- Drowsiness, poor concentration
- Abnormally deep and fast breathing
- Flushed face
- Dry skin and mouth
- Fruity breath odor
- Rapid and weak pulse
- Low blood pressure
If ketoacidosis is not treated immediately with fluids and insulin, it can lead to coma and even death.
American Diabetes Association
website. Available at:
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001.
Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.
Ketoacidosis. American Diabetes Association website. Available at:
. Accessed November 30, 2009.
Last reviewed September 2013 by Kim Carmichael, MD
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