A kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue or cells. A doctor who specializes in tissue diagnosis uses a microscope to look at the tissue for abnormalities.
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A kidney biopsy is done to diagnose a disease or medical condition.
A kidney biopsy may be done if you have:
- Blood in the urine
- High levels of protein in the urine
- Low kidney function
- A growth on the kidney
- Kidney infection
- A cyst on the kidney
After the tissue is examined, your doctor can make a diagnosis and provide treatment.
If you had a
kidney transplant, this procedure may be done to see if your new kidney is working properly.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you have a kidney biopsy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Smoking may increase the risk of complications.
Be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor before the biopsy.
Before the biopsy, your doctor may order urine tests, blood tests, and
of your kidneys.
- You should ask your doctor when you can expect to know the biopsy results.
- Arrange for a ride home after your biopsy.
- Your doctor may ask you to fast or eat lightly before your biopsy.
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure like:
Anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen
- Anti-platelet medications
You will receive a local anesthetic to numb your skin. You may also receive a light sedative.
This procedure is usually done in an outpatient setting with no need for an overnight stay. Your skin on your back or abdomen may be cleaned. A local anesthetic will be injected into the area where the biopsy will be taken. Next, your kidney will be located using either
or x-ray. Then, long needles will be inserted to collect tissue samples. A special instrument may be used to insert the needles. During the collection, you may be asked to hold your breath. After the samples are collected, a bandage will be placed on your skin.
The local anesthetic will block the pain during the biopsy. Afterwards, you may feel sore where the biopsy was taken. Ask your doctor which pain reliever is right for you.
You will be monitored for a few hours after your biopsy. You will be asked to remain lying down to reduce the chance of bleeding. Your pulse and blood pressure will be monitored. Your biopsy samples will be sent to the laboratory for testing. You will be sent home when you are feeling well and the doctor feels that it is safe.
When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
- Rest to prevent bleeding. You should usually rest for the first 24-48 hours after the biopsy. Do not lift or exercise until your doctor says it is okay.
- Keep your biopsy site clean and dry.
- Check your urine. You may notice some blood in your urine. This is normal for the first 24 hours. If there is bleeding that lasts longer than 24 hours or there is a lot of bleeding, call your doctor.
Be sure to follow your
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
- Bloody urine 24 hours after biopsy or a lot of blood in the urine
- Difficulty urinating
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills
- Pain that is worse at biopsy site
- Pain that you cannot control with the medications that you have been given
- A constant urge to urinate
- Pain or burning when you urinate
- Redness or drainage at biopsy site
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
How is kidney cancer diagnosed? American Cancer Society website. Available at:
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidneycancer/detailedguide/kidney-cancer-adult-diagnosis. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Israel GM, Francis IR, et al; Expert Panel on Urologic Imaging. Indeterminate renal mass. American College of Radiology (ACR); 2007.
Kidney biopsy. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at:
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/biopsy/. Accessed September 2, 2010. Accessed August 5, 2013.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: Mills E, Eyawo O, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed August 2013 by Adrienne Carmack, MD; Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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