The ability to see in poor light depends on the presence of a substance in the eye called rhodopsin, or visual purple. It is destroyed by bright light but rapidly regenerates in the dark. However, for some people, the adaptation to darkness or the recovery from glare takes an unusually long time. There is no medical treatment for this condition.
The herb bilberry, a close relative of the American blueberry, is the most commonly mentioned natural treatment for impaired night vision. This use dates back to World War II, when pilots in Britain's Royal Air Force reported that a good dose of bilberry jam just before a mission improved their night vision, often dramatically. After the war, medical researchers investigated the constituents of bilberry and found a group of active chemicals called anthocyanosides. These naturally occurring
antioxidants appear to have numerous potentially important actions within the eye.10,11
However, neither anecdote nor basic scientific evidence of this type can prove a treatment effective. Only
double-blind, placebo-controlled studies
can do that. (To learn why this is so, see
Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?) The current evidence from studies of this type is more negative than positive, with all of the most recent studies finding no benefit.
For example, a double-blind crossover trial of 15 individuals found no short- or long-term improvements in night vision attributable to bilberry.1
Similarly negative results were seen in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of 18 subjects
2 and another of 16 subjects.3 Earlier studies had reported some benefit, but they were less rigorous in design.4-9
Thus, at present, bilberry cannot be recommended as a treatment for improving night vision. For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full
Evidence from a small double-blind placebo-controlled study suggests that anthocyanosides (see Bilberry discussion above) from black currant might have some benefit for night vision.16
OPCs have also been recommended for improving night vision, although the evidence that they help is far too weak to rely upon at all.17,18
There is no question that deficiencies of
zinc can also negatively affect night vision. However, there is no reason to believe that taking
amounts of these nutrients will enhance vision.
Muth ER, Laurent JM, Jasper P. The effect of bilberry nutritional supplementation on night visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.
Altern Med Rev.
Zadok D, Levy Y, Glovinsky Y, et al. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision tests.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
Levy Y, Glovinsky Y. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision.
Jayle GE, Aubert L. Action of anthocyan glucosides on the scotopic and mesopic vision of the normal subject [in French; English abstract].
Jayle GE, Aubry M, Gavini H, et al. Study concerning the action of anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium Myrtillus on night vision [in French].
Ann Ocul (Paris).
Bone K. Bilberry—The vision herb.
Mediherb Prof Rev. 1997;59:1–4.
Sala D, Rolando M, Rossi PL, et al. Effect of anthocyanosides on visual performance at low illumination [in Italian; English abstract].
Minerva Oftalmol. 1979;21:283–285.
Gloria E, Peria A. Effect of anthocyanosides on the absolute visual threshold [in Italian; English abstract].
Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul. 1966;92:595–607.
Caselli L. Clinical and electroretinographic study on activity of anthocyanosides [in Italian; English abstract].
Arch Med Intern (Parma).
Wegmann R, Maeda K, Tronche P, et al. The effects of anthocyanosides on photoreceptors. Cytoenzymological aspects [translated from French].
Ann Histochim. 1969;14:237–256.
Cluzel C, Bastide P, Wegman R, et al. Enzymatic activities of retina and anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus (lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, 5-nucleotidase, phosphoglucose isomerase [translated from French].
Nakaishi H, Matsumoto H, Tominaga S, et al. Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans.
Altern Med Rev. 2000;5:553–562.
Corbe C, Boissin JP, Siou A. Light vision and chorioretinal circulation. Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers [translated from French].
J Fr Ophtalmol. 1988;11:453–460.
Boissin JP, Corbe C, Siou A. Chorioretinal circulation and dazzling: use of procyanidol oligomers [in French; English abstract].
Bull Soc Ophtamol Fr. 1988;88:173–174, 177–179.
Last reviewed July 2012 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
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